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3 things:
– general tonality
– collating values
– organizing effects

Anchors need points
Strong readers 
-value + edge

Bottom line is unity:
Collating all data to everything else
“We don’t create Unity, we find it”

All we do is collate data

The Start:
Values to values
Edges to edges
Angles to angles
In that order

We repaint corrections
Not just retouch

Always comparing like to like

Large masses with well-articulated points

Work up the start in the Visual Order –
Blur eyes, then paint strongest effects

Apply charcoal heavy, then rub out – kills the brown paper colors

Largest masses – don’t pay too much attention to value shifts within mass

Start should have crisp articulations that can carry through to the finish

Find the strongest readers

Avoid the back-straggler

Paint & sketch all the way to the edge

When working in charcoal, emphasize frame

Use ruler to get crisp edge

When measuring angles to points, make sure the points are crisp and articulate

Start by isolating and spotting main effects

Find the music / poetry of relationships – i.e. angles of the lines – see Gerome’s “Gladiators”

Arabesque = outline of center of interest? [my question]

Only paint what you can see within your hands held thumb together as a viewfinder
This typically fulfills Da Vinci’s rule of 3 – 3 times the distance

Also, observe that in the placements – standing before easel – 3x size of artwork

Start:  first marks are question marks – no info, start to build on

1 day for start

We don’t have time – blur eye to see what not to draw

The only facts in painting are relational facts

To paint red – find it’s context – look around the room

First marks are speculative

“Keep your knees bent” – flexible attitude

Shape plus edge gives articulated point

Absolute truth: value relationships
– As black as black and white as white
– Purely relational [range?]
– Transposition of reality

Start by watching – look at tonality – study

Save the whitest white

Transposing, not transferring

Paxton’s rule:  look 4 times for every mark

Servant of the visual impression

“Out of charge, into listen model”

Aspects of painting:  think of them like a window on PC – value window, color window, angles window, light effects window

“Start slow so you can finish fast” -Ingres

Model: “Need pleasure every 20 minutes”

Power up effects

Don’t look in in the start

Flatten out picture plane – look with just 1 eye

Notice what Paul doesn’t talk about

The Arabesque is a constellation of leading points through the painting

What do you see when you squint as hard as you can?
Make shapes disappear into each other when you see that

-Not drawing/painting objects

Avoid outlines

Seek continuation of forms through objects (forms of light & shadows)

Find the few light effects to go through when squinting?

Talk by Paul:

Picture in harmony – everywhere through process

With 2 or 3 witnesses get to truth

Get unity of impression in front of you

Values!! Relationships to lightest and darkest

Get differences, but see where else value/color can be used. 
Paxton – where else can brush go

3 notes – not comparison anymore – what is unity – how do they [hang?] together?

Unity as expressed by Cox – 
Kenyon Cox 
“Classic point of view”
Only dissimilar items can bring unity

Philip Hale – book on Vermeer – p 15

All Drawing all of a piece – color, value, line, angle, unity etc.

Be in habit of collating data – seeing how data comes together requires seeing whole

Everything added must contribute to Unity.

Don’t just do something,  stand there – slow model

Complex thrust 
Complex gesture

Need to get concept fixed into mind or just pushing shapes around

Have to grasp

Always work from an idea – Visual idea, not brain idea

Get [quality?] then get unity

Cornwell murals
Liberty Mutual

A light effect is 2 clearly defined values plus an edge

Power up lights and dark, and the lost edges – where they actually occur – is what gives a sense of space

Hard edges come forward, 
Lost edges meld into background

The end game is in the start – get the look of Nature

Spot values around
Lightest light
Darkest dark
Then a middle

Need a context for values to be right

2 approaches
– Series of effects
– [value masses]

In and out of approaches
Sometimes edge
Sometimes spot
Fixing anchors
Effects = value contrast edge
Sharp = strong
Soft = weak

Blur eyes – take top 3 or 4, those effects are the Arabesque – a constellation

Make it as like as you can, then follow through with comparisons

Unity = points being right to each other

Floating constellations

Not Now Cato

Patience Model

Who are the strong players?

Need larger spots – a few for initial places ideas, then larger masses – need to establish context to understand what the spots are.  
“The context is the refinement”
That will tell you what This is”

In the start: Stay away from shape, go for Mass

Blobs, not shapes.  Large enough to get the sense and relationships
This is research

All over at the same time – distributing spots NOT covering entire canvas until the end of the start

Flatten out the smudges,
No Texture

“Pulling up windows” – like PC
– Value window
– Angle window
– CONTRAST window

Joints and Rollers

Can start from light effects as well as from value spots

Value contrast is a light effect

Start = [place points unified into general aspect?]

Know what your top player is

Light effect is always brightest contrast sharpest edge

Sharp points for anchors

When you put names to things you start to draw out of your head

Form is in the lights

The innocent eye will get you unadulterated truth – knowing too much is dangerous

Set up effect – find out what it takes to make it happen

Visual Not Actual

“Everything in art is derived from Nature” – Ingres

The “Look of Nature” is on the canvas – is the color relationships
Shape + edge + contrast + color

Look of nature at points

BE the object, don’t be about the object

No generalizing – only the Look of Nature

What are the Leaders?

Float the Look of Nature – float light effects

Most Significant Anchor

Look Easy at things

See Nature as [if] it’s already a painting

From across the room, that’s the composition, everything else is design

Naive Eye – only color, value, effect, shape, not things

Stay objective long enough until the music starts – go slow

Short list of things we work with: the list of transferable attributes between Nature and paint – value, shope, contrast, edges

When analyzing Back stragglers
Is it a form problem, value problem, placement problem, angle problem? Etc.

Likeness is not beauty,
Relationships are beautiful

Squint for the Look of Nature – 
Look for any anomalies – 
What disappears? What remains?

Be A Loser

Copy Notes:

Hydrangeas – very easy to see form of dark masses
Far easier to see lossness

Portrait:  Extremely easy to see strong readers – obvious visual order
– Clear, simplified values: light, dark, middle
– Tougher to get points

Peaches & brass
Hardly anything there – contrast through edges

Copy critiques

-general tonality
Keying a picture: general tonality

5 habits for successful painters??
What are they?
Light effect

Ghosting of whites
Values not right

Always step back –
Learn + memorize relationship – Ingres’ 5th floor
Concept: fixing relationship in memory


Stand Corrected
Keep adjusting
Be careful with each mark – how it relates to context?

Look for unities not differences

Fingers of light and shade

Squinting – one eye closed, softer

Look for “flayed man” video

Make fixed points – top & bottom
1 left & right
Fix longest angles then smaller

Don’t erase, move

Shadows flat: edge to edge, fill in the blanks

Get the light effects right, right from the beginning. 
Move them as necessary.
Make the relationships correct right from the start

Try to locate an anchor in a center (x or y axis)
Anchor = a light effect from which other placements are determined

Effect = most found

What do they do?
Gets easy to remember
Doing = what is relationship – story?

Masters of Past Time [Paul recommends RE rembrandt]

Work value masses plus light effects together from the beginning:  Get them both in play immediately – the value masses are required to give context to the light effects

Broken color exercise
Red Yellow Blue
Need to do search
Textured areas – can be off in value
Can break color – keep values same

Basis of all color isn’t getting one note, it’s getting set of notes

All over at once
“Hop Hop Hop” -Gammel

Go for pretty colors – 
Keeps the rewards
Pursue colors you like!

Trying to figure out where the problems are

Floating points

Don’t squint – lose color qualities – keep eyes moving – wobbling – cones have best light

Just Red Yellow Blue

Just exploration – just research

If you have it in brush – see where else you can use it.

Chromatic = projective

Can make lights too big – [give] drawing with darks

2 or 3 strokes, then a cross stroke

Value first, then intensity

When any 2 colors put down, get them right to each other

Mixing colors: sometimes helpful to overshoot value / chroma

Get 2 – 3 things talking to each other

Most light effects aren’t white

Paint from spots to drawing, but the drawing is in the spots

Size of the spots matters?

Monet approach – appearance of color

Color exists in comparison with several others

Getting enough chroma in the lights is the biggest challenge

Ignore what things are or where the light comes from  – painting as is is LIBERTY

When spotting – no hard edges – looks too much like drawing – vignette the spots – nothing flat

The main problem in painting is the chroma in the lights

Look at Da Vinci’s warm/cool shadows comments

Outside in, all over at once.  Get notes at the edge of the canvas to avoid incorrect light effects

Avoid clumping spots

The battle is figuring out what to work on.  Blur your eyes, and what stands out is what you work on.

Paint the similarities first, then work out if there’s an actual difference

Color-values become the drawing

Shouldn’t take more than 3 marks to hit color
Value adjustment
Chroma adjustment
red/yellow/blue adjustment 

Puddle darks to make sure they pop before drawing with them.
Oil adds snap

Just blobs – not drawing

International first, then local

Use black last – red first

Match color first, then make adjustments

Do the start on an unchanging day – and keep the color going forward

Everything open during start.

“Open for Business”

“The System” is the big impression – let the painting lead you

Colors don’t get to be generalized

Greater to less greater to least great

Find out where the juice is then back down from it

Blur eyes
Strongest effects


August 3

See “Fearless” for set design
“King’s Speech” for paintings
“What dreams may come”

Light effects need masses – not broken color

Do it too far into the darks, then use darks to draw

Adjust, not [?] out

Correct exactly and only what you need to correct

If you and adjust it with a stroke, do so – 2 minutes rather than 2 hours

Visual order is visual, but also actual (order of perception AND order of work.

Visual order tells you what to DRAW first
We choose what to draw first – strongest, most dominant, easiest way it
FLOAT them
(float = unconnected MUCH)

Collating data – with each new piece of data – how does it fit in – 
Relate with each and every simple note – easier than changing multiple points later.

Start with high chroma – want to relate to something significant – also darkest dark, lightest light, top & bottom – we choose the strongest – what’s worthy of our relation.

Paxton model – simplest is best

Stay on the back straggler

First part of color is value, then chroma

STAY working in the visual order

Strong readers: you can see them when you’re not looking directly at them

What tends to disappear?

What masses with what?

Broken color is search for the mass
Get color in there without killing the chroma

Use live color – put on touch and don’t stir – otherwise mud

“In my world I want clean color”
Put white down in a string

Color distribution by spot

2 categories for relationships –
How different?
How same?

For lost areas, values must match

If I can get to value, I can get to color

How can I influence note instead of how can I [?] over?

Rembrandt: “When I stop thinking I stop painting” – has to do with tiredness

Put a note down – see what it DOES

Don’t look in proportion

Width is function of height

Establish top & bottom

Don’t look for soggy effect

Outside in – major distances for light effects

Gammel – elevator effect – the noble half of a painting

No texture when trying to read values

The start must include the color scheme

No long strings – blobs should be uninteresting

Points only need to be adequate

Mud = no color, no effects – don’t generalize, explore!

Never place easel towards window

More raking light, the better

2 things make a color come forward – chroma & warmth

Need lights to stay fresh and chromatic

Blurring kills color, but establishes crucial order of effects – visual order

Remove texture from masses – creates unintentional light effects

Look straight ahead with both eyes

Trying to find the music, not find the basket – get the notes to sing to each other.

We don’t suggest values, we nail them

Always on a small mission – quick wins

Dead colors = Dead pictures

August 4

Use of palette

Mix colors on canvas – adjust on palette

Paint can’t be stiff – should move under brush

Buttery but not liquid

To adjust, mix pile next to original, get value matched.  Then leave original alone as reference

Lets you change 1 variable at a time – everything is adjustment

When mixing, mix enough to cover required area

First mixture is a pig in a poke – test run

When values match, there won’t be a silhouette in pile

Mix to pig in a poke, then adjust

First thing – gotta be good at matching color mixes

Have palette in line of sight to get adjustment clues

Mixes – always of value and chroma unless you plan to change value & chroma

First mixes can be pure paint

Don’t live in yesterday’s knowledge – the naive eye wants candy

Keep the spots clean – don’t mix into each other

If you need dark red, need to use black – can’t use blue as it will neutralize orange component

Make mixtures grow out of each other

Use oil every time for blacks

With this strategy, you stop guessing, and work faster

First test mark wets canvas

When adjusting – exact match to what’s already there – then start adjusting wet into wet.

Cad scarlet = yellow & red
Alizarin = blue & red

If your picture is full of life, your palette will be too

Everything is about being in control

Rothenstein – Men & memories P 192 First book
“Scientific method of work – 
Sargent: spotting things around then bringing masses together – assembling

Get top & bottom – then get left – make triangle, get angles in relation to each other, THEN establish width.

Know exactly when you’re there, do exactly what you intend, then get out – accomplish mission then leave

Put down multiple darks, then immediately differentiate

Get as much color on as possible to kill the white

Gammel – what’s the least amount you can do to accomplish your task?

August 5

Rembrandt – when I stop thinking I stop painting
Good thinking always a function of strong back

Read forbidden knowledge a few times – 
Hindu 3 blind men & elephant –
Gets to cosmic truth

Truth has to be verifiable 
Multiple witnesses lead to big truth – 
Watch the whole, see back straggler – closer and closer – anchoring


We can’t paint nature – we can only paint what it’s doing

The start is all mobility – 
“That’s a pretty good note – I’ll live with it for a while”

Logic – way of working that has its own internal unity – every note is a function of every other note

Keep looking for data – finding things to correct what you already said

If painting isn’t easy, you’re working on the wrong thing

First few notes – find easier and prettier first – get info

The only absolute truth of our world is the relative values

Fluidity of search for truth

Anchors – never be in the world of fixedness – 
Keep flexible
Clarity – lends itself to crystalization

“In the beginning” – 
Think about how much content is in the word “IN” 
(Romanian prisoner in solitary – thinking about sermons)

When you realize you’re a brain and a hand – 
You find yourself forming an …

Don’t name colors EVER – look at palette and say “Some of that”

Lose old constraints –

Let the notes think you rather than thinking about the notes

When the value changes, the color changes